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 Readme for:  Utility » Misc » eggshell.lha

Eggshell

Description: A particle simulator written using allegro
Download: eggshell.lha       (TIPS: Use the right click menu if your browser takes you back here all the time)
Size: 69kb
Date: 10 Jan 09
Author: Shawn Hargreaves, Vincent Penquerc', AmigaOS 4.x compile by Spot / Up Rough
Submitter: Spot / Up Rough
Email: spotup/gmail com
Requirements: liballegro.so
Category: utility/misc
License: Other
Distribute: yes
Min OS Version: 4.0
FileID: 4428
 
Comments: 0
Snapshots: 0
Downloads: 309  (Current version)
309  (Accumulated)
Votes: 0 (0/0)  (30 days/7 days)

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EGG 1.22 - the Explosion Graphics Generator
       ------------------------------------------


   A particle system script interpreter.

        By Shawn Hargreaves, 1998.

    Updated June 1999 to work with MSVC.

   Updated July 1999 to work under Linux.

                           v1.1 December 1999

                           v1.2 January 2002

                            v1.21 April 2002

                           v1.22 January 2003

                           v1.23 November 2005





#include <std_disclaimer.h>

   "I do not accept responsibility for any effects, adverse or otherwise, 
    that this code may have on you, your computer, your sanity, your dog, 
    and anything else that you can think of. Use it at your own risk."



======================================
============ Introduction ============
======================================

   This program allows you to implement particle system graphics effects by 
   writing simple ASCII script files. It is not at all optimised and 
   therefore runs quite slowly, so it isn't suitable for realtime use, but 
   it may be useful for making prerendered animations, as a testbed for 
   designing effects that you will later reimplement in more efficient 
   native C code, or as a library that can be linked into your program and 
   used to generate some graphics when the program initialises.

   I chose the name EGG partly because that is an acronym for "Explosion 
   Graphics Generator", but mostly because I've always wanted to have a type 
   of file with a .egg extension :-)

   This program is freeware. You may do anything you like with it.

   If you come up with any really cool scripts, it would be great if you 
   could send them to me for inclusion in future versions of the package.



======================================
============ Installation ============
======================================

   EGG is distributed as source code, so the first step is to compile it.

   The build process requires a working copy of DJGPP version 2.0 or 
   greater, and Allegro version 3.9.18 or greater. If you don't already have 
   these, they can be obtained from http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/ and 
   http://www.talula.demon.co.uk/allegro respectively.

   Assuming that you have unzipped EGG into a unique directory, eg. c:\egg, 
   change into that directory and type "make". That's it!

   To compile a Windows version using MSVC, run "make msvc".

   To compile a Linux version, run "make linux".

   Running "make clean" will delete all the temporary files that were 
   generated during the build process, and if you want to distribute a 
   modified version, "make zip" will create an archive of all the important 
   files (this target requires the InfoZip zip and unzip programs to be 
   installed on your machine).



==============================================
============ The EGGSHELL program ============
==============================================

   To run an EGG script and view the resulting graphics, you can use the 
   EGGSHELL program. The simplest way to do this is to pass the name of an 
   EGG script (which have a .egg extension) on the command line, in which 
   case it will generate and display a sequence of frames, going as quickly 
   as possible. Example command line:

      eggshell script.egg

   If you want to slow things down to see what is going on, you can add the 
   -step option, which will cause it to wait for a keypress after each frame 
   is displayed, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -step

   If you want more control over the playback, or if the script is running 
   too slowly (this will often be a problem with complex sequences), you can 
   tell the utility to pregenerate a whole sequence of frames and then 
   display them in the more flexible animation viewer. To do this, you must 
   specify how many frames to create, and use the -pregen switch, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -frames 100 -pregen

   Once in the animation viewer, you can use the arrow keys to move forward 
   or backward one frame at a time, and the space bar to toggle playback on 
   or off. The home/end keys move to the start and finish of the animation 
   respectively, and pgup/pgdn alters the playback speed (specified in 
   frames per second).

   If you want to export graphics that can then be used with other programs, 
   use the -o switch to specify an output filename, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -frames 100 -o myfile

   This will generate a sequence of numbered frames using filenames in the 
   form myfile000.tga, myfile001.tga, etc.

   By default, the generated graphics will be sized 128x128. You can alter 
   this using the -size option, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -size 48 100

   If you don't specify a color depth, EGGSHELL will try to detect the 
   highest possible video mode that your computer supports in 640x480 mode, 
   trying first 32, then 24, 16, 15, and 8. You can select any other color 
   depth with the -bpp switch, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -bpp 15

   When generating a 256 color paletted image, you can use the -pal option 
   to specify which palette should be used during the color reduction 
   process. Palettes can be read from 256 color BMP, LBM, PCX, and TGA 
   files, for example:

      eggshell script.egg -pal colors.pcx

   By default, EGGSHELL will display the output using a 640x480 SVGA video 
   mode, but you can specify any other screen resolution with the -mode 
   switch, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -mode 320 200

   If the video card autodetection doesn't work properly on your machine, 
   you may wish to use the Allegro mode selection dialog to choose a 
   specific resolution, color depth, and video driver. This is done with the 
   -modesel switch, eg:

      eggshell script.egg -modesel

   Useful tip: when using EGG to prerender graphics, you may find that you 
   get much better results by creating them at a much larger size than you 
   actually desire and then shrinking down the resulting image in Photoshop, 
   or by applying some Photoshop filters to the output of the EGG system.

   You may want to generate your animations in several 'slices', for example
   to get a background part and a foreground part. This may be done by using
   the -plane switch, specifying where to cut the animation. The following
   example will generate two animations, one with all particles with depth
   less than 0.5, the other one with all particles with depth more than 0.5:

      eggshell script.egg -plane 0.5

   Several planes can be set by using multiple -plane options: to divide an
   animation into four 'stripes', you can use:

      eggshell script.egg -plane -0.8 -plane -0.0 -plane 0.2

   Sometimes, an animation needs a certain setup time, for example if a source
   if creating particles each frame and the animation is to include several
   generations of them. It might then be desirable to discard the first frames
   of an animation. The -shoot switch allows this, as well as specifying a
   save period (for example, save every third frame) to have some rough control
   on the animation speed: it is sometimes much easier to generate more frames
   between the ones that are actually saved, than to alter the script to change
   the particles' speed or other properties. For example, the following command
   will save every second frame after the 15th one:

      eggshell script.egg -shoot 15 2

   If you want to generate animations without viewing them, maybe as part of
   a build process, you can use the -nomode switch, which will avoid switching
   to a video mode. Be aware that Allegro will use its default RGB layout if
   you use this, however, as it cannot ask the new video mode what its layout
   is (eg, BGR instead of RGB, or the other way round). For example, the
   following command will generate 32 frames of animations silently:

      eggshell script.egg -nomode -bpp 32

   Note that the color depth must always be specified when using -nomode.



=========================================
============ Writing scripts ============
=========================================

   An EGG script is written as an ASCII text file with a .egg extension. 
   Like C, this is a freeform language, so you can insert whatever spacing 
   and indentation you like to make the layout more attractive.

   Comments begin with a # character, and continue to the end of the line.

   The language is case-insensitive, so you can use any mixture of upper and 
   lowercase characters.

   The fundamental building block of an EGG animation is the particle, which 
   is a (usually small) blob that can move around the screen in whatever way 
   you desire. A script can define any number of particle types, specifying 
   the commands to control each one, and can then create any number of 
   instances of each particle type. You can create particles either globally 
   when the script initialises, or from within other particles in response 
   to specific events.



=========================================
============ Script commands ============
=========================================

   The 'type' command
   ------------------

      Syntax:

  type <typename>
  {
     <commands>
  }

      This defines a new type of particle. The type name can be of any 
      length, and may contain alphabetic characters and '_' characters. The 
      supplied list of commands will be used to control the behaviour of 
      this type of particle, and can use any of the constructs listed below 
      (it isn't possible to nest type definitions inside each other, 
      though).


   The initialisation command
   --------------------------

      Syntax:

  <var> := <value>;

      This is used to specify the initial value of a variable, and will be 
      executed only once when a particle is created. The variable name can 
      be of any length, and may contain alphabetic characters and '_' 
      characters. The value can be any arithmetic expression.
      Such initializations can only be made at the top level of a particle
      declaration (eg not in an if or a while construct).


   The assignment command
   ----------------------

      Syntax:

  <var> = <value>;

      This is used to modify the value of a variable, and will be executed 
      once for every frame while the particle is active. The variable name 
      can be of any length, and may contain alphabetic characters and '_' 
      characters. The value can be any arithmetic expression.


   The 'if/else' command
   ---------------------

      Syntax:

  if (expression) {
     <commands>
  }

      or:

  if (expression) {
     <commands>
  }
  else {
     <commands>
  }

      This is used to conditionally execute a block of commands based on the 
      result of a boolean expression (as in C, zero represents false and 
      nonzero is true).


   The 'while' command
   -----------------

      Syntax:

  while (expression) {
            <commands>
         }

      This command executes a block of commands while the boolean expression
      is true (as in C, zero represents false and nonzero is true).


   The 'lay' command
   -----------------

      Syntax:

  lay <typename>;

      or:

  lay (<num>) <typename>;

      or:

  lay <typename> {
     <commands>
  }

      or:

  lay (<num>) <typename> {
     <commands>
  }

      This command creates new particle(s). The type name must refer to a 
      particle type which has been defined using a 'type' statement 
      somewhere in the current script, although it is possible for the 
      particle creation to be located earlier in the file than the type 
      definition.

      If the optional bracketed number is present, this specifies how many 
      particles to create (it may be any arithmetic expression). If it is 
      omitted, only one particle will be created.

      If a list of commands is included, these will be executed once just 
      after the particle is created, allowing you to customise this 
      particle. Any variable references in this block of code will refer to 
      the new particle: if you want to access variables belonging to the 
      parent particle, prefix them with a leading '_'.


   The 'die' command
   -----------------

      Syntax:

  die;

      This command gets rid of a particle when it is no longer required. No 
      subsequent commands will be interpreted, and the particle will 
      instantly be stomped upon, flushed down the drain, and removed from 
      the display.


   The 'srand' command
   -----------------

      Syntax:

  srand(<num>);

      This command reinitializes the random number generator with the given
      value. This is particularly useful for generating looping animations,
      where the particles must move in a cyclic fashion.



=====================================
============ Expressions ============
=====================================

   Numbers may be written in decimal (eg. 42, 1.2345) or in hex (eg. 
   0xDEADBEEF). Variables are referenced directly by name. Boolean logic 
   works identically to C, with zero representing false and nonzero being 
   true.


   Binary operators:

      +        addition
      -        subtraction (may be unary negation, depending on context)
      *        multiplication
      /        division
      ^        raising to a power
      %        integer modulus (remainder after division)
      |        logical 'or'
      &        logical 'and'
      ==       equality test
      !=       inequality test
      <        less than test
      <=       less than or equal to test
      >        greater than test
      >=       greater than or equal to test
      min      minimum
      max      maximum


   Unary operators:

      -        negation (may be binary subtraction, depending on context)
      !        logical 'not'
      sqrt     square root
      sin      sine (angle in degrees)
      cos      cosine (angle in degrees)
      tan      tangent (angle in degrees)
      asin     inverse sine (angle in degrees)
      acos     inverse cosine (angle in degrees)
      atan     inverse tangent (angle in degrees)
      log      base 10 logarithm
      ln       natural logarithm
      ceil     round up to the next larger integer
      floor    round down to the next smaller integer
      round    round to the closest integer
      abs      absolute value


   Special values: 

      rand     a random number between zero and one (inclusive)
      pi       3.14159...
      e        2.71828...


   Operator precedence (lowest at the top):

      |  &
      <  >  ==  !=  <=  >=
      +  -
      *  /  %
      ^
      !  sqrt sin cos tan asin acos atan log ln ceil floor round abs min max


   Differences from C syntax:

      The ^ operator raises a number to a power. There is no XOR facility.

      The boolean logic operators are written with single | and & character, 
      rather than || and &&. There are no binary logical operators.

      The trig routines work with angles in degrees, rather than radians.

      The 'log' routine returns a base 10 logarithm, and 'ln' returns a 
      natural logarithm, unlike C where 'log' is a natural logarithm and 
      'log10' is a base 10 logarithm.

      min and max are implemented as operators, unlike the conventional
      functional notation commonly found. As such, the minimum of 7 and
      4 is expressed as "7 min 4" or "4 min 7", rather than min(7,4).

      EGG does not explicitly support function calls. Instead, what look 
      like functions are implemented as high priority unary operators. This 
      has an almost identical effect, but it means that it is technically 
      possible to omit the usual brackets from these, allowing you to write 
      "sqrt 10" in the place of "sqrt(10)".



===================================
============ Variables ============
===================================

   Variable names can be any length, and may contain alphabetic and '_' 
   characters. They do not need to be declared prior to use, and any 
   values which have not yet been set will be assumed to contain zero 
   (except for a few variables which have special meanings and default 
   values: see below).

   When running the commands from inside a particle type definition, most 
   variables have local scope, ie. they are specific to this particular 
   particle. If the variable name has a leading '_', though, it will be 
   treated as a global variable, which can be accessed by all particles.

   When running global commands which are not inside any particle 
   definition, you can only access global variables (those which have a 
   leading '_').

   When running the commands that are nested inside a "lay" particle 
   creation, direct variable accesses will refer to the particle that has 
   just been created. If the variable name has a leading '_', though, it 
   will refer to the parent particle, ie. the one that is doing the 
   creating. For example, if you wanted to make a new particle in the same 
   position as the one which is currently running, you could write "x = _x; 
   y = _y" inside the "lay" block.

   The EGG system uses a number of special variables to represent the way in 
   which a particle is drawn, and you can control the state of a particle by 
   modifying these values. All other variable names are free to be used for 
   whatever you like. The variables with special meanings are:


   x, y          - default 0

      Specify the position of the particle. Zero is the centre of the 
      animation, x increases to the right, and y increases downwards.


   z             - default 0

      Specifies the depth of the particle. Altering this value will 
      introduce 3d perspective effects, and will also control the order in 
      which particles are drawn (further away ones are sorted to the back).


   size          - default 1

      Specifies the size of the particle.


   aa            - default 0

      If set to a nonzero value, the particle will be drawn in antialised 
      mode. This softens it out around the edges which usually looks much 
      better for large particles, but may cause very small particles to 
      flicker or get lost altogether if they fall part way between two pixel 
      positions.


   focus         - default 1

      This only has effect when the particle is being antialised. It 
      controls the falloff rate towards the edge of the particle, allowing 
      you to adjust between a very soft edge and a harder, more solid 
      outline.


   r, g, b       - default 255

      Sets the color of the particle, ranging from 0 to 255.


   a             - default 255

      Sets the alpha (solidity) of the particle, ranging from 0 to 255.


   add           - default 1

      If set to a nonzero value, the particle will be drawn in additive 
      color mode, where the particle RGB value is added to the existing 
      color at that location.


   mul           - default 0

      If set to a nonzero value and the add flag is cleared, the particle 
      will be drawn in multiplicative color mode, where the particle RGB 
      value is multiplied with the existing color at that location.


   sub           - default 0

      If set to a nonzero value and the add and mul flags are cleared, the 
      particle will be drawn in subtractive color mode, where the particle 
      RGB value is subtracted from the existing color at that location.


   If none of the add, mul, and sub flags are set, the particle will be 
   drawn in normal translucent mode, where the particle alpha value is used 
   to interpolate between the particle RGB and the existing color at that 
   location.


   id            - unique

      A special read-only variable, containing an ID number that is unique 
      for each particle. The first particle to be created will have an ID of 
      1, the second will be 2, etc.


   wrapx, wrapy  - default 0

      These control whether or not the resulting images will be tileable
      in the corresponding directions. You still have to make sure that
      any particles in the script are well placed: these two variables
      only control the way they are drawn, by wrapping a particle's image
      on the corresponding edges.


   age           - unique

      A special read-only variable, containing the number of frames since
      the current particle was created.


   _scale        - default 1

      Global variable, shared between all particles. This specifies a 
      scaling factor to make the entire output image larger or smaller.


   _dist         - default 100

      Global variable, shared between all particles. This controls the 
      position of the camera along the z axis, so you can move it closer in 
      or further away from the animation.


   _fov          - default 1

      Global variable, shared between all particles. This controls the field 
      of view for the 3d projection, allowing you to select a telephoto or 
      fisheye lens.


   _frame        - variable

      Special read-only global variable, containing the current animation 
      frame number.


   _count        - variable

      Special read-only global variable, containing the number of particles 
      that are currently active.



=====================================
============ The EGG API ============
=====================================

   If you want to link the EGG interpreter directly into a program of your 
   own, you should #include "egg.h" and link with libegg.a (this must come 
   before Allegro in your linker command line). This will give you access to 
   the functions:


   EGG *load_egg(char *filename, char *error);

      Reads and tokenises an EGG script from the specified disk file, 
      returning a pointer to a structure describing the script. If an error 
      occurs, it will return NULL and store a description of the problem in 
      the provided error buffer, which should have room for at least 80 
      characters.


   EGG *use_egg(void *data, int length, char *error);

      Tokenises an EGG script which has already been loaded into memory, 
      returning a pointer to a structure describing the script. If an error 
      occurs, it will return NULL and store a description of the problem in 
      the provided error buffer, which should have room for at least 80 
      characters.


   void destroy_egg(EGG *egg);

      Removes an EGG script from memory.


   int update_egg(EGG *egg, char *error);

      Advances to the next frame of the specified EGG script animation. If 
      an error occurs, it will return a nonzero value and store a 
      description of the problem in the provided error buffer, which should 
      have room for at least 80 characters.


   void lay_egg(EGG *egg, BITMAP **bmp, int nplanes, double *planes);

      Renders the current animation frame into the provided Allegro bitmap 
      array. The size and color depth of the bitmap control the format 
      of the output, and if it is an 8 bit image, color reduction will be 
      done using the currently selected palette.


   double evaluate(char *equation, int *error, double (*var)(char *name));

      Helper function for evaluating arithmetic expressions, which may be 
      useful in your own programs (if you want to pinch this, you actually 
      only need to link with eval.c rather than the entire libegg.a). It 
      evaluates the provided equation, returning the result, and storing a 
      nonzero value in error if anything goes wrong. If the var function is 
      not NULL, this will be called whenever a variable is encountered in 
      the equation, allowing you to look up and return a suitable value for 
      it.



=================================
============ History ============
=================================


   Version 1.0

      Original version, by Shawn Hargreaves.
      Runs on DOS, Linux, and Windows


   Version 1.1

      Added alpha channel output.
      Added support for tileable images.
      Added the 'srand' keyword, useful for looping animations.
      Added possibility to specify which frames to save, most notably to
        allow a time of setup for animations which require it.
      Added planes.
      Added the 'while' keyword.
      Added the fireedge.egg and firemid.egg example scripts.


   Version 1.2

      Added the 'age' variable.
      Enhanced the alpha mode.
      Various optimizations (mainly rendering and variable handling).
      Documentation fixes (I had not documented all of my changes in 1.1).
      Removed leftover debug traces which made it past the release (thanks
        to Peter Hull who told me of this and made other suggestions).
      Added the degrees<->radians conversion operators.


   Version 1.21

      Fixed the use of preloaded EGG scripts.


   Version 1.22

      Output images without alpha on a magic pink background.
      Added the min and max operators, useful for initializations.
      Fixed mixup in the version defines.


   Version 1.23

      Add the -nomode option.


===============================
============ Files ============
===============================

   egg.mft                 - list of all files in the package

   egg.txt                 - this document

   makefile                - script for building the package

   egg.h                   - structure definitions and function prototypes

   eval.c                  - arithmetic expression evaluator
   interp.c                - interprets the tokenised script format
   load.c                  - reads a script into the tokenised memory format
   render.c                - graphical output routines
   unload.c                - frees memory when a script is no longer required
   var.c                   - helpers for accessing and setting variables

   evaltest.c              - test program for the code in eval.c

   eggshell.c              - utility program for running scripts

   examples/fireball.egg   - a very simple example script
   examples/gravburn.egg   - using gravity and trig functions
   examples/shock.egg      - specifying parameters when creating particles
   examples/wheel.egg      - using one particle to create others on the fly
   examples/burn.egg       - multiple particles that create others
   examples/stars.egg      - a simple 3d effect
   examples/orbit.egg      - a more complex 3d effect
   examples/firework.egg   - interaction between several types of particle
   examples/spiral.egg     - enhanced version of wheel.egg, by Arron Shutt
   examples/comet.egg      - comet effect, by Jason Wilkins
   examples/firemid.egg    - fire, showing the use of tileable animations, 1/2
   examples/fireedge.egg   - fire, showing the use of tileable animations, 2/2
   examples/smoke.egg      - simple smoke, based on examples/burn.egg



======================================
============ Contact info ============
======================================

   Shawn Hargreaves is the original author of EGG:

   WWW:                 http://www.talula.demon.co.uk/

   Email:               shawn (at) talula (dot) demon (dot) co (dot) uk



   Vincent Penquerc'h is the current maintainer of EGG:

   WWW:                 http://lyrian.obnix.com/egg/

   Email:               lyrian (at) kezako (dot) net




Copyright (c) 2004-2017 by Björn Hagström All Rights Reserved
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